International Journal of Mars Research | ISSN 2453-8760 | Current Issue: 7 Volume 4

List of all missions to Mars

No. Launch Date Name Country Result Reason
1 1960 Korabl 4 USSR Failure Didn’t reach Earth orbit
2 1960 Korabl 5 USSR Failure Didn’t reach Earth orbit
3 1962 Korabl 11 USSR Failure Earth orbit only; spacecraft broke apart
4 1962 Mars 1 USSR Failure Radio Failed
5 1962 Korabl 13 USSR Failure Earth orbit only; spacecraft broke apart
6 1964 Mariner 3 USA Failure Shroud failed to jettison
7 1964 Mariner 4 USA Success Returned 21 images
8 1964 Zond 2 USSR Failure Radio failed
9 1969 Mars 1969A USSR Failure Launch vehicle failure
10 1969 Mars 1969B USSR Failure Launch vehicle failure
11 1969 Mariner 6 USA Success Returned 75 images
12 1969 Mariner 7 USA Success Returned 126 images
13 1971 Mariner 8 USA Failure Launch failure
14 1971 Kosmos 419 USSR Failure Achieved Earth orbit only
15 1971 Mars 2 Orbiter/Lander USSR Failure Orbiter arrived, but no useful data and Lander destroyed
16 1971 Mars 3 Orbiter/Lander USSR Success Orbiter obtained approximately 8 months of data and lander landed safely, but only 20 seconds of data
17 1971 Mariner 9 USA Success Returned 7,329 images
18 1973 Mars 4 USSR Failure Flew past Mars
19 1973 Mars 5 USSR Success Returned 60 images; only lasted 9 days
20 1973 Mars 6 Orbiter/Lander USSR Success/Failure Occultation experiment produced data and Lander failure on descent
21 1973 Mars 7 Lander USSR Failure Missed planet; now in solar orbit.
22 1975 Viking 1 Orbiter/Lander USA Success Located landing site for Lander and first successful landing on Mars
23 1975 Viking 2 Orbiter/Lander USA Success Returned 16,000 images and extensive atmospheric data and soil experiments
24 1988 Phobos 1 Orbiter USSR Failure Lost en route to Mars
25 1988 Phobos 2 Orbiter/Lander USSR Failure Lost near Phobos
26 1992 Mars Observer USA Failure Lost prior to Mars arrival
27 1996 Mars Global Surveyor USA Success More images than all Mars Missions
28 1996 Mars 96 Russia Failure Launch vehicle failure
29 1996 Mars Pathfinder USA Success Technology experiment lasting 5 times longer than warranty
30 1998 Nozomi Japan Failure No orbit insertion; fuel problems
31 1998 Mars Climate Orbiter USA Failure Lost on arrival
32 1999 Mars Polar Lander USA Failure Lost on arrival
33 1999 Deep Space 2 Probes (2) USA Failure Lost on arrival (carried on Mars Polar Lander)
34 2001 Mars Odyssey USA Success High resolution images of Mars
35 2003 Mars Express Orbiter/Beagle 2 Lander Europe Success/Failure Orbiter imaging Mars in detail and lander lost on arrival
36 2003 Mars Exploration Rover – Spirit USA Success Operating lifetime of more than 15 times original warranty
37 2003 Mars Exploration Rover – Opportunity USA Success Operating lifetime of more than 15 times original warranty
38 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter USA Success Returned more than 26 terabits of data (more than all other Mars missions combined)
39 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander USA Success Returned more than 25 gigabits of data
40 2011 Mars Science Laboratory USA Success Exploring Mars’ habitability
41 2011 Phobos-Grunt/Yinghuo-1 Russia/China Failure Stranded in Earth orbit
42 2013 Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution USA Success Studying the Martian atmosphere
43 2013 Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM) India Success Develop interplanetary technologies and explore Mars’ surface features, mineralogy and atmosphere.
43 2016 ExoMars – Trace Gas Orbiter/Schiaparelli Lander Europe / Russia en-route to Mars Study the organics in Martian atmosphere. Technology development of landing module.

Source: NASA