The composition of rocks on the surface of planet is from geologic point of view quite diverse. One from many other elements prevails and it causes also typical color of planet. This element is iron (Fe) and on the planet it is concentrated in form of various iron oxides.
Picture below displays map of concentration of iron rocks (data from Mars Odyssey):
Topography of Mars created with data from Mars Global Surveyor (source and image credit NASA):
Full resolution of this image can be found here at this link.
Are there any similarities to surface of Earth? Yes, of course, for example calcium sulfate veins and many others. Look on comparison below, isn’t it nice?
Useful study resources:
- Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Elevation Map
- MOLA full resolution map
- Latest raw images from MSL Curiosity
If you are interested in landscapes of Mars, we strongly recommend you this book or this book about Geology of Mars: The Geology of Mars: Evidence from Earth-Based Analogs (Cambridge Planetary Science)